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id="3m1slskndchc7" class=""> <span style="font-size:14px;">    桥梁加固,就是通过一定的措施使构件乃至整个结构的承载能力及其使用性能得到提高,以满足新的要求。也就是要针对桥梁所发生的不能满足继续使用的状况进行处理。加固的原因有桥梁耐久性差和年久老化、设计失当或施工质量差等。通过桥梁加固后,可以延长桥梁的使用寿命,用少量的资金投入,使桥梁能满足交通量的需求,还可以缓和桥梁投资的集中性,预防和避免桥梁坍塌造成的人员和财产的损失?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">(一)、桥梁加固的目的和要?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    1、桥梁加固的主要目的</span><br /> <p> <span style="font-size:14px;">    一是确保桥梁工程的安全、完整、适用与耐久性?/span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:14px;">ٿ    二是提高原有桥梁的通过能力与承载能力?/span> </p> <span style="font-size:14px;">    2、桥梁加固的基本要求</span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    一是掌握桥梁结构状况。完善基础资料。为加固提供必要条件?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    二是经济费用。一般来说,加固费用约为新建费用?0%?0%。即应优先考虑加固?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    三是不中断交通或尽量减少中断交通?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    四是对已发现的缺陷,要一次性加固好,不留后?加固设计应按规范进行?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    五是对原有桥梁结构的损伤应尽可能减至最低?/span><br /> <p> <span style="font-size:14px;">ٿ六是技术可靠、耐久适用、养护方便?/span> </p> <p style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img src="/uploads/image/20170628/20170628113004_7058.jpg" alt="" /><br /> </span> </p> <span style="font-size:14px;">(二)、桥梁加固的主要方法</span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    1、加大截面加固法</span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    加大截面法,人们又把其称为外包混凝土加固法?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    其定义是指采取增大混凝土结构或构筑物的截面面积,目的是用来提高其承重力和满足正常使用一种有效的加固方法?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    当钢筋混凝土受到弯构件受压区加混凝土现浇层时,可以增加截面有效高度,扩大截面面积,最终实现提高构件的正截面抗弯,并且其斜截面也抗剪能力和截面刚度,起到加固补强的作用?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    这种加固的方法可以广泛用于混凝土结构的梁、板、柱等构件,以及一般的构筑物加固?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    一般条件下,主要是采取加厚桥面板或加大主梁的梁肋宽度为主要方式方法?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    2、体外预应力加固?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    体外预应力加固法适用于高应力状态下的结构,尤其更加适用于大型结构的加固等?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    并且能够提高承载力、刚度和抗裂性,而且在加固后所占桥梁的空间小?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    体外预应力法的加固原理是施工方在梁的下缘初的受拉区地点设置预应力材料,并且通过张拉的方式对梁体产生偏心预应力,使梁体发生上拱,抵消部分自重应力,从而减小了结构变形和裂缝宽度、改善了结构受力,提高承载力、刚度和抗裂性及加固后所占用空间小的桥梁?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    但是这种方法的缺点是局部布索效果明显,锚头增多,节点构造复杂,施工作业面要求高等原因使加固钢桁架整体经济效益不高?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">该方法主要适用情况是高应力状态下的结构,或者是大型结构的加固等情况,也或者是用于控制梁体裂缝及钢筋疲劳应力幅等情况?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    3、体系转换加固法</span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    体系转换法是改变桥梁结构体系达到减少梁内应力,并且能够提高承载能力的一种加固方法,这是一种平时所说的把被动加固为主动加固的一种有效方法?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    改变结构体系加固法是指能够增设附加构件或能够进行技术改造,达到使桥梁的受力体系和受力状况发生根本性的改变,并能够起到减小其承重构件的应力作用,最终达到提高承载能力的目的效果?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    目前最常用的体系转换方式有:梁桥转换为梁拱组合体系法,增加辅助墩法,多跨简支梁转为先简支后桥面连续体系法等?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    4、粘贴钢板加固法</span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    粘贴钢板加固法是以粘贴钢板加固应用?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    采用粘结剂和锚栓并且把钢板粘贴锚固于混凝土结构受拉面或其它的薄弱部位,达到使钢板与加固混凝土结构形成整体,最终实现提高结构承载能力的目的?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    但是该粘贴钢板加固法有自身的一些缺点,如在粘贴钢板加固后还需进行必要的表面防护工作,如环氧砂浆或水泥砂浆保护层,钢板的锈蚀程度较难估计,降低了加固构件的可靠性,增加了加固桥梁的后期养护费用?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    但是该方法也经常使用在桥梁的加固中,而这样的方法还是表现出一些不错的优点?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    如施工简单、技术可靠、短期加固效果较好且工艺成熟并且基本不改变原结构的尺寸?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    5、复合材料加固技?FRP)</span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    由纤维及网型树脂两部分构成。目前常用的复合材料有E一玻璃纤维、碳纤维、芳伦纤三种,其中又以碳纤维(CFRP)材料应用的最为广泛?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">采用碳纤维布加固修补桥梁和建筑结构技术是一种新型的结构加固技术,它是以树脂类胶结材料为基体,将碳纤维布粘贴固化于混凝土结构表面,利用碳纤维的高强度高弹性模量来达到对混凝土结构物进行补强和加固,并改善结构受力状况的目的?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    6、绕丝加固法</span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    绕丝加固法是在被加固构件表面缠绕退火钢丝使被加固的受压构件混凝土受到约束作用,从而提高其承载能力和延性的一种直接加固方法?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">该种绕丝加固法具有如下优点:一是提高钢筋混凝土构件的斜截面承载?二是提高轴心受压构件的正截面承载力?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    7、SRAP加固方法</span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    SRAP加固方法是一种新的导入预应力概念的桥梁加固方法?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    其利用SR增强材料的高强特性和AP树脂砂浆防腐防水,粘合力强的特点,通过特殊的方法施加对SR高强材料施加预应力,从而达到对桥梁的加固?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">预应力的施加,把膨胀螺栓锚固于梁底两端,软钢丝的两端用螺旋扣环固定于膨胀螺栓上,通过把丝扣反向的螺旋扣环旋紧施加预应力?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    8、桥面补强层加固?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    将原桥面铺装全都凿除或凿毛,然后加铺一定厚度的补强层,以增大主梁有效高度及改善桥梁荷载横向分布能力,从而提高单梁承载能力或桥梁结构整体承载能力?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    9、锚喷混凝土加固?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    从隧道施工中转化而来的加固方法,主要用于因支点截面尺寸偏小而导致的抗剪强度不足的混凝土梁的加固维修?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    10、增加横向联系加固法</span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">    增加横向联系,也是近几年采用较多的加固方法。该方法是通过增设桥梁横向联系,以改善上部结构的荷载横向分布规律,从而达到提高结构整体承载能力的加固方法?/span><br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">一般用于无内横梁或少内横梁的T型截面及工字形截面梁式桥,工程上常在相邻主梁间增设现浇混凝土横梁或钢横梁来提高横向抗弯刚度?/span><span style="font-size:14px;"></span> 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